Greeks and Romans

After the collapse of the Hittites, stability returned to Anatolia after a long period with the settlement of Greek colonies along the west coast, which began to be known as Asia Minor. Iona and Lydia were the two powerful Greek settlements. Croesus, king of Lydia became famous for minting the first coins to be used. He also gained control over most of Anatolia.

In 546 a greater conqueror from the east, Cyrus, defeated Croesus and established a Persian empire in west Anatolia. The conflict between the Persians and the Greeks continued till Alexander the Great marched east and established a Greek dominance once again. However, by the last century BC, the Romans had extended their rule over Anatolia. Eventually, a part of the Roman Empire converted to Christianity and the Byzantines came to rule Anatolia.