Beginning of the Seljuks

In their attempt to consolidate the Islamic Empire, the Seljuks entered into negotiations with the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople, or Istanbul, but border relations between the two were never congenial. Both Seljuks and Byzantines were enrolled as private troops for the Armenian-Byzantine landowners and there was constant dispute between them.

Towards the latter part of the 11th century, when matters had reached a critical stage, the Byzantines under Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes tried to suppress the Seljuks and re-conquer Armenia. He confronted the Seljuk army in the field of Manzikert north of Lake Van in 1071, but underestimated their military prowess. The light riding Turks overpowered his army and captured Diogenes himself. After that with no Byzantine army to stop them, the Seljuk's entry into Anatolia was easy. They took control of Central and Eastern Anatolia with Konya as their capital. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was thus formed as a part of the Great Seljuk Empire, with other major cities like Alanya, Erzurum and Sivas under its control.